Tensormeter RTM1


Tensormeter RTM 1

Sheet and Hall resistance: automated, ultra-precise, off-set free


The Evolution of the van-der-Pauw concept



The Tensormeter is designed for automated precision measurements of resistances and voltages. It unites the benefits of Lock-in Amplifiers and Source/Measure Units through an innovative flexible architecture based on an integrated matrix switch. Tensormeter RTM1 enables the automated recording of the complete Resistivity Tensor (Rx, Ry, RH) with one single device, even on unpattern thin films.

With excellent AC and DC performance, it covers the range from Nano-Ohm to Giga-Ohms with at least 8 digits of dynamic range.

Tensormeter can be used for materials research, thin film characterization as well as wafer and device testing.


Reconfigurable device architecture based on an integrated switching matrix

8 user-defined channels (BNC connectors), whose function (input or output) can be freely determined

Conventional AC and DC 4-wire measurements with fixed connections (Kelvin/ Hall geometry)

AC and DC measurements with alternating connections (van-der-Pauw geometry) with one device


Simultaneous measurement of exactly separated absolute values for longitudinal and transverse resistances without lithographic patterning

Software presets for common measurement modes, but any user-specific switching sequences can be specified

TCP-based communication, easy integration in any environment (e.g. Labview, C, Python)



Replaces all standard devices for electrical characterization measurements (e.g. Lock-in Amplifier, SMU, DMM)

Overcomes the limitations of stationary 4-point measurements by an integrated Matrix Switch

Offers presets for van-der-Pauw and Resistance Tensor measurements and allows for full user configurability


Makes complex sample preparation unnecessary (e.g. lithographic structuring).


Allows for easy connectivity to many different measurement setups (e.g. probe stations, cryostats, vacuum systems)


Saves measuring time and enhances sample throughput


Tensormeter enables a comprehensive electrical characterization of thin film and bulk samples on the basis of a 4-point geometry, such as the simultaneous measurement of sheet resistance and Hall resistance, van-der-Pauw measurements on unstructured thin film samples or zero-offset Hall effect measurements. 

Owing to its unique design the Tensormeter provides exactly separated and absolute values for the longitudinal and transverse resistances of a sample simultaneously, even for irregular shapes that are not litographically patterned.  

When using the Tensormeter, photolithography can thus be foregone in many characterization tasks, saving massive time and investment.


Despite using only half the number of switching configurations compared to the conventional van-der-Pauw & Hall measurements, the full precision of the measusured signal is restored by post calculation within the device, potentially doubling throughput.


Tensormeter provides extremely low noise measurements allowing for short integration times and, thus, creates massive measuring time savings. 



Applications & Examples

Materials research and characterization

Industrial R&D and wafer/device testing

  • solid state physics

  • semiconductor physics

  • magnetism

  • flexible electronics

  • spintronics

  • new functional electronic materials and devices

  • microelectronic devices

  • memory devices

  • transistors, diodes


  • solar cells

  • displays, TCO

  • sensors


Typical measurement examples

Ultra-low noise and high stability AC & DC 4-wire measurements in standard geometries (Kelvin and Hall layouts)

Van-der-Pauw switched connection 4-wire measurements on irregular, unstructured thin-film samples

Sub-ppm relative resistance change measurements


Zero-Offset Hall 4-wire measurements (exact separation of longitudinal and transverse resistance even with unstructured samples)

Ratiometric resistance measurements to eliminate sample and device drifts

High drive harmonic distortion measurements,
pulse & measure routines

Low resistive samples

Zero-offset Hall: eliminate drift and parasitics

RTM1-measurement example1.png

Differential Input Noise Spectrum of a resistive sensor. Ultra-low wideband & 1/f noise AC measurements allow accurate sensor characterization and operation.

RTM1-measurement example2.png

Differential Input Noise Spectrum of a Hall measurement on a thin film sample. The Zero-Offset Hall preset of the Tensormeter eliminates thermal drift and allows long integration and orders of magnitude improved sensitivity compared to regular 4-wire Hall measurements.

RTM1-measurement example3.png

Loss of magnetization during warmup of an anti-ferromagnetic sample monitored in Hall Resistance. The Zero-Offset Hall preset of the RTM1 (top) clearly shows the loss of signal. On the contrary, parasitic signal contributions overshadow the useful magnetization signal in a regular 4-wire Hall measurement of the same sample (bottom).



Publication highlights

Thermodynamics and Exchange Stiffness of Asymmetrically Sandwiched Ultrathin Ferromagnetic Films ...

Yastremsky et al., Phys. Rev. Applied 12, 064038 (2019)

Nanomagnetism of Magnetoelectric Granular Thin-Film Antiferromagnets

Appel et al., Nano Letters 9 (3), 1682-1687 (2019)

Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory

Kosub et al., Nature Communication 8, 13985 (2017)

Highly compliant planar Hall effect sensor with sub 200 nT sensitivity

Granell et al., npj Flexible Electronics 3, 3 (2019)

Anomalous Hall-like transverse magneto-resistance in Au thin films on Y3Fe5O12

Kosub et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 222409 (2018)

Evolution of the spin hall magnetoresistance in Cr2O3/Pt bilayers close to the Néel temperature

Schlitz et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 132401 (2018)


Patented Development

The Tensormeter technology is a patented development of

Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V.