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Tensormeter RTM 2

Achieve unlimited precision and stability using Tensormeter´s integrated switching matrix
for sheet, Hall and resistance tensor measurements


The Tensormeter is designed for automated precision measurements of resistances and related quantities. It uniquely combines DC & AC measurements with an integrated switching matrix.

The RTM2 offers the low noise of lock-in amplifiers,

the 8+ digits of dynamic range of high-end multimeters, and unparalleled stability to study ppb-level effects. Nano-Ohm investigations become easier than ever.

The innovative connector design allows conventional BNC operation with passive shielding or with active guard shielding. This extends the upper impedance limits to the Tera-Ohm range at DC and increases AC bandwidth by about two orders of magnitude for testing Mega-Ohm devices.


The Tensormeter RTM2 enables the automated recording of the complete Resistance Tensor (Rx, Ry, RH) with one single device, even on unpattern thin films.

The RTM2 can be used for materials research, thin film characterization as well as sensor, wafer and device testing. The unique ability for AC tests in quickly-multiplexed settings enables tighter component binning during live production.


Benefits of the switching matrix

Conventional precision devices such as multimeters or lock-in amplifiers rely on the 4-wire resistance measurement method with a static connection to a device under test (DUT). This method unavoidably contaminates the measurement with various parasitic contributions both from the DUT and from the measurement device itself.


Measurement arrangements such as the Wheatstone bridge or lithographic Hall-bar patterning can be used to reduce the impact of some of the parasitics, but they all rely on exact and stable symmetries of real resistors or etch patterns, which is unachievable in practice.


In contrast, a matrix switch allows to segregate the parasitic contributions in the time domain. One example is the van-der-Pauw method that allows the exact discrimination of longitudinal and transverse resistance, even on irregularly shaped samples without a lithographic patterning.

Another example is the “auto-zeroing” employed by some DC meters, in order to compensate offset drift. But it doesn’t stop there. The full matrix switch of the Tensormeter and its full compatibility with tightly-multiplexed AC measurements open astonishing possibilities.


It is possible to compensate both offset and gain drift for unlimited stability. “Unlimited” is literal here: Achievable precision is not 7, 8 or 10 digits; it is however many digits you are willing to wait for. Enter the world of metrology in your own lab.


It is also possible to compensate compound non-linearity of the entire instrumentation. This allows testing for sub-ppm-level I-V-nonlinearity making higher-order transport physics visible at lower and gentler current densities.



Reconfigurable device architecture based on an integrated switching matrix

8 user-defined ports (BNC connectors) with freely determinable function (input, output and/or reference)

BNC shields configurable as passive ground or active guard


Conventional AC and DC 4-wire measurements with fixed connections (Kelvin or Hall geometry)

AC and DC measurements with alternating connections (Tensor measurements, van-der-Pauw or ratiometric measurements)


Simultaneous measurement of exactly separated absolute values for longitudinal and transverse resistances of thin films without lithographic patterning

Software presets for common measurement modes, specification of any user-specific switching sequences

TCP-based communication and easy integration in any environment (e.g. Labview, C, Python)




Replaces all standard devices for electrical characterization measurements

(e.g. Lock-in Amplifier, SMU, DMM)

Overcomes the limitations of stationary 4-point measurements by an integrated Matrix Switch

Offers presets for van-der-Pauw and Resistance Tensor measurements and allows for full user configurability


Makes complex sample preparation unnecessary (e.g. lithographic structuring).


Allows for easy connectivity to many different measurement setups (e.g. probe stations, cryostats, vacuum systems)


Saves measuring time and enhances sample throughput


Applications & Examples

Materials research and characterization

Industrial R&D and wafer/device testing

  • solid state physics

  • semiconductor physics

  • magnetism

  • flexible electronics

  • spintronics

  • new functional electronic materials and devices

  • microelectronic devices

  • memory devices

  • transistors, diodes


  • solar cells

  • displays, TCO

  • sensors


Typical measurement examples


Ultra-low noise and high stability AC & DC 4-wire measurements in standard geometries (Kelvin and Hall layouts)

Van-der-Pauw switched connection 4-wire measurements on irregular, unstructured thin-film samples

Sub-ppm relative change and non-linearity measurements in fundamental physics and metrology


Zero-Offset Hall 4-wire measurements (exact separation of longitudinal and transverse resistance even with unstructured samples)

Ratiometric resistance measurements to eliminate sample and device drifts

High drive harmonic distortion measurements,
pulse & measure routines

Low resistive samples

Zero-offset Hall: eliminate drift and parasitics

RTM1-measurement example1.png

Differential Input Noise Spectrum of a resistive sensor. Ultra-low wideband & 1/f noise AC measurements allow accurate sensor characterization and operation.

RTM1-measurement example2.png

Differential Input Noise Spectrum of a Hall measurement on a thin film sample. The Zero-Offset Hall preset of the Tensormeter eliminates thermal drift and allows long integration and orders of magnitude improved sensitivity compared to regular 4-wire Hall measurements.

RTM1-measurement example3.png

Loss of magnetization during warmup of an anti-ferromagnetic sample monitored in Hall Resistance. The Zero-Offset Hall preset of the RTM1 (top) clearly shows the loss of signal. On the contrary, parasitic signal contributions overshadow the useful magnetization signal in a regular 4-wire Hall measurement of the same sample (bottom).




Hardware / Installation


Publication highlights

Thermodynamics and Exchange Stiffness of Asymmetrically Sandwiched Ultrathin Ferromagnetic Films ...

Yastremsky et al., Phys. Rev. Applied 12, 064038 (2019)

Nanomagnetism of Magnetoelectric Granular Thin-Film Antiferromagnets

Appel et al., Nano Letters 9 (3), 1682-1687 (2019)

Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory

Kosub et al., Nature Communication 8, 13985 (2017)

Highly compliant planar Hall effect sensor with sub 200 nT sensitivity

Granell et al., npj Flexible Electronics 3, 3 (2019)

Anomalous Hall-like transverse magneto-resistance in Au thin films on Y3Fe5O12

Kosub et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 222409 (2018)

Evolution of the spin hall magnetoresistance in Cr2O3/Pt bilayers close to the Néel temperature

Schlitz et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 132401 (2018)

Direct observation of Néel-type skyrmions and domain walls in a ferrimagnetic DyCo3 thin film

Luo, C., Chen, K., Ukleev, V. et al. (2023)

Patented Development

The Tensormeter technology is a patented development of

Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V.

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